Category: Buz Words
Posted by: bagheljas
infrastructure Technology Outsourcing Partner (iTOP) - Partner works with the enterprise infrastructure owners to co-create the standard infrastructure Technology services for the enterprise.

infrastructure Services Innovation Partner (iSIP) - Partner takes a multi-step approach. First, baseline the business roadmap. Second, baseline the roadmap of the applications in alignment with the business roadmap. Then, the partner develops the enterprise infrastructure services catalog in collaboration with business, applications, and infrastructure owners for business agility. The catalog is either composite in nature built using standard infrastructure services or custom-built services enabling business innovation and agility.
Category: Buz Words
Posted by: bagheljas
The word Technology Stack means different things to different people due to their roles and responsibility. The context of Technology Stack also changes it's contents such as Application Technology Stack versus Server Technology Stack that hosts an Application Component(s). The Application Technology Stack serves the Strategy and Design needs while Server Technology Stack serves the Implementation and Engineering needs as a result the Application Technology Stack drives the Server Technology Stack.

The Technology Stack schema elements are given below:
  • Server Platform such as x86, Mainframe, Mac, Solaris
  • Operating System such as Windows, Linux, Solaris
  • Middleware - Web, App and Database Platforms
  • Application Products
    • Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS)
    • Opensource-off-the-shelf (OOTS)
  • Hardware and Software Appliances such as Google Search Appliance

Application Technology Stack may have multiple Server Platform and Operating System while Server Technology Stack will have only one Server Platform and associated Operating System. Application and Server Technology Stacks both can have multiple Middleware Platforms and Application Products.
Category: Buz Words
Posted by: bagheljas
The Applications Metadata is the information about an application that provides high level quick insight into the underlying business architecture, application architecture, system architecture and infrastructure architecture of the application. The Applications Metadata of an enterprise portfolio is a key foundation to develop IT strategy that includes cloud strategy, applications and infrastructures rationalization strategy, data center migration and consolidation strategy, technology refresh strategy, security strategy, and business continuity & disaster recovery strategy for the enterprise.

Sample Schema Elements for Applications Metadata:
  • Core Information
    • applicationName
    • description
    • serviceUrls
    • applicationType
    • businessFunction
    • businessCriticality
    • userBase
    • userType
    • securityAndCompliance
    • cloudReadiness
    • roadMap
    • knownIssues
    • comments
  • Target SLAs
    • Site
    • System
    • Service
  • Implementation Information
    • implementationType
    • technologyStack
    • applicationArchitecture
    • applicationDependencies
  • System Maintenance
    • blackoutPeriod
    • maintenanceWindow
    • maintenanceTypes
  • Sizing Information
    • userBaseSize
    • transactionVolume
    • transactionRate
    • operatingSystemsInstances
    • webAppServersInstances
    • databaseServersInstances
    • databaseSize
    • filesystemSize
  • Software / System Deployment Life Cycle (SDLC)
    • type
    • lifeCyclePath
    • lifeCycleDuration
    • testingType
    • testingDuration
    • state
  • Backup and Disaster Recovery
    • performanceObjective
    • RPO
    • RTO
    • deploymentState
  • Contacts
    • business
    • development
    • testing
    • productionSupport
Category: Buz Words
Posted by: bagheljas
Data Sizes Buz Words
Category: Buz Words
Posted by: bagheljas
ITO Architecture Layers

01/28: What is SPF?

Category: Buz Words
Posted by: bagheljas
SPF stands for Sender Policy Framework that facilitates a validation process to allow email receivers to find out if the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol(SMTP) relay is allowed to relay email for users from a site domain like,, etc.

This helps mark email messages as SPAM sent using someone else email address by the email receiving also known as Mail Exchanger(MX) servers. Enterprise email systems often use SPF framework to prevent SPAM messages delivery to their employees.

It is one of the industry leading standards to identify SPAM. The alternate frameworks to identify SPAM are Domain Keys IM aka DKIM and Sender ID.

SPF implementation depends on the internet’s lifeline Domain Name System TXT Resource Record for a site domain in the authoritative DNS server. Presently, SPF version 1 specifications are in use that helps site domain owner to publish the authorized SMTP relays.

SPF mechanism prefix are “+” Pass, “-“ Fail, “~” SoftFail, and “?” Neutral. Evaluations of an Domain SPF Records and Intended Actions are given below:
Evaluations of an Domain SPF Records and Intended Actions
It is highly recommended that you setup SPF or simmilar framework like Sender ID or DKIM for your mail domain to allow MX servers to identify email SPAM and to ensure outbound email delivery. It also helps you protect your brand image by not allowing the SPAMMERS to use your mail domain to send emails.
Category: Buz Words
Posted by: bagheljas
TIA-942 is a Data Center Standards publication developed by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) to set guidelines for planning and building data centers, particularly with regard to cabling systems and network design. The standard deals with both copper and fiber optic media.
Category: Buz Words
Posted by: bagheljas
Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is not simply a technology or a product: it's a style of design, with many aspects like architectural, methodological and organizational unrelated to the actual technology such as implementing an Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) in an application stack.

SOA is the new generation distributed computing platform whose components and sub-systems are a service provider to the enterprise and/or cross enterprise than a project. SOA design pattern(s) expects you to conceptualize, implement and manage re-usable business function(s) of an enterprise as a service.

Primarily, SOA services consumers and providers interacts using decoupled interfaces to promote the efficiency, agility and productivity in an enterprise for designing, implementing and managing business functions. In business terms, SOA enables an organization to leverage economies of scale and scope in their products and services offerings.

Service is a function that is well defined, self contained, and doesn't depend on the state of other service(s). In some cases, a service provider is a service consumer as well. If the services are consumed over HTTP(S), than it's called Web Services. HTTP(S) is the application protocol mostly used for SOA Services, also known as SOA Web Services. Usually, the request and response from the services is an XML.

An Enterprise SOA is expected to create a collaborative environment without worrying about underlying heterogeneous processes, tools, and technologies of other services. SOA services platforms are expected to be stateless, secure, scalable, available, backward compatible, and meet the Service Level Agreements (SLA), and Service Level Expectations (SLE).
Category: Buz Words
Posted by: bagheljas
Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) is a software application that works as proxy between consumers and producers of the SOA Services, and Legacy Business Systems.

Usually an ESB has the following functions:
  • Supports and transforms synchronous and asynchronous transport protocols
  • Content based smart routing, Service Orchestration and Process Choreography
  • Message Validation against schemas, and Message processing, transformation and enhancement.
  • Services Metrics, Monitoring and Metering
  • Services Security
Category: Buz Words
Posted by: bagheljas
HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a stateless application protocol that runs on top of the TCP/IP, the foundation protocol of Internet. Internet Cookies framework is used to have the statefull behavior. HTTP protocol defines the rules and standards for Web Server also know as HTTP Server (e.g. Apache, IIS etc.) and Web Client also know as HTTP Client ( e.g. Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome etc. ) data exchange based on request and response paradigm.

Good to know:
  • Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is used for submitting a request from a Web Client. Usually an URL consist of Protocol, Host Address (DNS Name / IP Address), Port* and Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)*. Please note that Port and URI in an URL are the optional fields and when they are not present, default values are used. URI default value is decided by Web Server while port default values are from HTTP rules and standards. Usage patterns of the URLs are
    • protocol://hostAddress
    • protocol://hostAddress/URI
    • protocol://hostAddress:port/URI
    • protocol://hostAddress:port
  • Web Server Daemon's default listening ports are 80 (http) and 443(https).
  • The Request and Response message consist of an header and an optional message body. The key parameter of a request is HTTP method and of a response is HTTP status code.
  • The HTTP request methods are OPTIONS, GET, HEAD, POST, PUT, DELETE, TRACE, and CONNECT. The commonly used HTTP request methods in an web application implementation are
    • GET Submits a request for the identified resource. Optionally capable to take limited data as URI query parameters in header.
    • POST Submits data as part of the message body to the identified resource. Capable to submit large data.
    • HEAD Same as GET, but request gets an response without message body.
  • The response status codes are divided into four categories 1xx Informational, 2xx Success, 3xx Redirection, 4xx Client Error, and 5xx Server Error. The commonly seen HTTP response status code are
    • 200 OK
    • 301 Moved Permanently
    • 302 Temporary Redirection
    • 304 Not Modified
    • 401 Not Authorized
    • 403 Forbidden
    • 404 Not Found
    • 500 Internal Server Error
    • 501 Not Implemented
    • 502 Bad Gateway
    • 503 Service Unavailable
  • HTTPS provides the Transport Layer Security (TLS) for the data exchange between Web Client and Web Server built on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) framework.
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